Otolaryngology is commonly known as ENT. It specifically deals with medical and surgical treatments of any condition of the ear or nose or throat. Offering treatment and surgeries for tonsillitis to sinusitis, removal of cancerous cells, benign tumors, tonsils, the ENT doctors are specialized in diagnosing and treating all disorders of the neck and head. The best ENT (Ear, Nose & Throat) hospitals in India strive to provide the best treatment on all the different kinds of diseases and conditions pertaining to ears, nose, and throat.
Cleft Lip and Palate Surgery
Cleft palate and cleft lip surgery are performed to repair the birth flaws of the upper palate or lip. There can be different types of cleft lip and palate surgery. Sometimes it can be a small cut, sometimes a complete cleft going up to the base of the bottom of the nose. Similarly, the cleft palate can occur over the total length of the palate or just on one or both sides.
Generally, within 12 weeks after the birth of a child, this surgery of cleft lip is done. An ENT specialist usually cuts the tissues and stitches the lip together, after performing a general anesthesia on the patient. As the stitches done are small, so the scar becomes less
visible. With the healing of the scar the stitches get absorbed naturally; therefore there’s no need of stitch removal later.
The cleft palate surgery is performed when a child is 9 months to 1-year-old. Opting for this kind of ENT surgery during the early age enables the palate to change as the child develops and helps to prevent any speech problems. For this surgery, patients need general anesthesia during which tissue from the upper section of the mouth is moved to coat the soft palate. Depending upon the condition of the patient one or more surgery may be needed.
During these surgeries sometimes surgeons need to include rhinoplasty as well to correct the nose shape of the child.
Eardrum repair is a specific ENT surgery, performed for fixing a hole or tear or any other kind of damages to the tympanic membrane or the eardrum. There are three usual types of eardrum surgery; they are tympanoplasty, myringoplasty, and ossiculoplasty. An ENT surgeon uses operating microscope for viewing inside the ear canal and repairing the small bones.
Ossuculoplasty refers to removing, repairing or replacing the tiny bones in the middle ear. An ENT specialist carries out general anesthesia and makes an incision inside or behind the ear so that the patient doesn’t feel any pain.
In tympanoplasty, the tympanic membrane is reconstructed with tissues taken from the patient’s muscle sheath or vein. This procedure usually takes 2 to 3 hours.
Myringoplasty is performed to repair tiny little holes or defects in the eardrum by placing a kind of paper or gel. It may take 10 to 30 minutes maximum.
Surgery of Salivary Gland
The salivary gland surgery is a special kind of ENT surgery that deals with treating the tumors of salivary glands. The tumors are actually the abnormal growth of the cells in the glands or the tubes through which saliva reaches the mouth. The slow-growing benign tumor of parotid glands is the common type of salivary gland tumor. Increasing the size of the salivary gland, sometimes it can be cancerous.
Some of the most common causes for this are:
Infection of salivary glands
Stones in Salivary duct
Cirrhosis of the liver
The main function of the salivary glands is to produce saliva for moistening the food to help in munching and swallowing. Among the main 3 pairs of salivary glands, the parotid glands are largest and located the cheeks just ahead of the ears. There are two sublingual glands below the floor of the mouth, two submandibular glands under the jaws on both side and thousands of little salivary glands at various places in the mouth.
Parathyroidectomy is a surgical method through which parathyroid tumors and glands are removed. Helping the body to maintain the proper level of calcium in the blood, the parathyroid glands situated in the neck, behind the thyroid gland. A patient is given general anesthesia before the initiation of this kind of surgery.
At the center of a patient’s neck, right under Adam’s apple, a small cut is made through which an ENT specialist remove the diseased or affected gland. In some cases, if all the four glands are found affected, then at least one is transplanted in the forearm to keep the calcium level in blood well-balanced. A patient may need a specific blood test in order to determine whether all the diseased glands have been removed or not.
Among the different types of ENT surgery of thyroid glands, the MIP or Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy requires the patient to have a little amount of radioactive chemical compound before surgery. This radioactive label helps the surgeons to locate the specific glands which are diseased by using special probes, such as Geiger counter. This procedure involves a small cut on any side of the neck and the removal of affected glands through the cut. The whole process may take around 1 hour.
In endoscopic parathyroidectomy, another type of parathyroidectomy, the ENT specialist makes 2 to 3 small cuts on the front portion of a patient’s neck a single cut just above the collarbone. Reducing recovery time, pain and visible scarring it removes the unhealthy parathyroid glands through 2 inches long incision.
While performing a video-assisted parathyroidectomy a surgeon makes two tiny cuts in the patient’s neck; one is for inserting a camera and the other is for medical instruments. By using the camera, surgeons can see the area inside and remove the affected glands with instruments.
Nasal Sinus and Endoscopic Surgery
In the earlier days, nasal sinus surgeries needed external incisions. As a result of which patients used to feel discomfort and pain due to the extreme nasal packing and needed a long time to recover. However, times have changed now and so have the techniques. Due to the advancement of medical science and technology, it has been possible to perform the surgery of nasal sinuses and nasal endoscope entirely through the nose, without any mouth or face incision.
The endoscopic surgery of nasal sinuses requires little amount of nasal packing, very little time for recovery and can cause mild pain. A nasal endoscope is a thin and small metal telescope like medical device with a special video camera attached to it. It allows an ENT specialist to see inside the sinuses and nose.
Rhinoplasty Surgery for Nose
Rhinoplasty refers to a particular surgery performed to reshape or repair the nose. This nose surgery can be performed on a patient under local or general anesthesia at a hospital, a surgery center or even in a surgeon’s chamber. It generally takes around 2 hours; however, can exceed depending on the patient’s condition.
In local anesthesia, a patient’s nose and its surrounding area are numbed and the surgery is performed while he is awake. With general anesthesia the patient remains asleep throughout the surgery.
Usually, this ENT surgery involves a cut or incision (made from the outside or inside) and splint placement. The outside cut, where the cut is made around the nose area, is generally performed to place cartilage graft or work at the tipping point of the nose. The splint when placed outside, helps to maintain the bone shape of the nose after the surgery; when placed inside, helps to keep the dividing wall between septum well-balanced.
Surgery for Sleep Apnea
Sleep Apnea is a serious disorder that interrupts the normal breathing process, causing shallow breathing or almost stopping it. Repeatedly occurring almost 30 times or more than that per hour, in sleep apnea breathing can stop for few seconds to few minutes even. A person who has small airways or family history, or is overweight generally suffers from the risk of sleep apnea. It can also be seen in children with expanded nostrils and specifically in males.
Obstructive sleep apnea is one of the most common types of sleeping disorder. The airways generally get blocked or collapsed and after a sound of choking or snorting, normal breathing begins again. It is not mandatory that everyone who snores while sleeping is suffering from it. However, people suffering from this sleeping disorder tend to snore loudly.
Though many people consider it to be a trivial issue, it’s important to acquire proper treatment for it. Because, a person not getting enough sleep at night may be at risk of medical problems, car accidents or work-related mishaps. Sleep apnea can be treated by surgery, changing the lifestyle or using the breathing devices. There are plenty of best ENT hospitals in India that can cure sleep apnea with their top treatment methods and surgeons.